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Beginning to A.D. 350
A.D. 350 to 794
A.D. 1260 to

The Scoto-Norman Empire

Edgar became king in 1097 and his installation proved to be a radical departure for the politics of Scotland. Previously Kings of Scotland had looked to the south for temporary alliances with, for example, the Northumbrians. However, now the South was a unified state under Norman rule and its power and resources far exceeded those of Scotland.

This unsettled period was also troublesome in respect of the North of Scotland. King Magnus III of Norway had laid waste to the Hebrides and Edgar formally acknowledged him as ruler of the Hebrides in 1098. In addition there was a rebellion in Moray and Alexander(see below) took a small well-armed force North to crush the rebellion.

When Edgar died he was suceeded on 8 January 1107 by Alexander, Edgar's younger brother. What followed was a relativley settled period and on 23 April 1124, Alexander's died and was succeeded by his younger brother, who becomes David I, and the third of the sons of Malcolm III and Margaret to become King of Scots.

Although neither of these two kings were in fact Norman, they became considered by the Norman nobles as "one of them". They associated themselves closely with the ideals of Norman society and the system of government. As was common at this time, political intrigue ebbed and flowed and on the 22 August 1138, The Scots army under David I is defeated at the Battle of the Standard at Northallerton in Yorkshire in an attempt to capitalise on unrest in England to extend his kingdom. Despite the defeat, the Treaty of Durham that follows in 1139 gives David I effective control over Northumbria and Cumbria. Fourteen years later on the 24 May 1153 David I dies, and is succeeded by his grandson, Malcolm IV, aged 12.

On 6 January 1156 there was open warfare in the Hebrides (which had remained under the guardianship of the Norse Kings which resulted in Somerled(a Norse-Celtic kinsman) defeating the Norse and subsequently becomes Lord of the Isles, leader of a Gaelic state centred on Loch Finlaggan on Islay. Malcolm died in 1165 and was followed by his younger brother William I who was to reign for 49 event filled years.

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