In the beginning
The Wall and the Picts
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The coming of the Celts
Scotland was in some ways seperated from the centres of world civilisation (although not physically) and technical progress lay far away to the East. However, the huge growth in human numbers in central and Eastern areas of Europe and the plains of Asia mean't it was only a matter of time before migration started to occur.
By around 600BC the great folk movements in Europe were well under way and the Celts (those speaking the Celtic language) had spread themselves thinly across Europe. Indeed, they had spread themselves in overlapping layers from Bohemia to France. During this process of migration, they had acquired a variety of new skills, new technologies and new understandings.
The Celts were a race of people, rather than a nationality and although they never organised a "capital" as such, they did occasionally group together under temporary alliances. As an example of this, they succesfully "sacked" Rome in 386 B.C.
For some unknown reason, Celtic tribes appear to have been relatively slow to move into the region of Scotland. However, through a form of part migration, part violent raiding and part peaceful trading and "marriage", from their "base" in England, they established themselves over a period of time.
Language of course played a part in this and the language that the Celts spoke developed over time into Gaelic. Unusually for the time, the incoming Celts made no effort (or certainly sustained effort) to dislodge the existing inhabitants. It was ironic then, that the Celts time in Scotland was to be disrputed by the coming of the Romans.